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TOP 10 micro-strategies in translation 

TOP 10 micro-strategies in translation 

The proposed micro-strategies are a "ten-point list" of tactics based on Peter Newmark's recognized strategies (Approaches to Translation, 1988, Hertfordshire, UK, Prentice Hall, pp. 82-91). These include linguistic units in the source text that can be translated directly, one-to-one counterparts or near equivalents, and solutions for dealing with units that are difficult or impossible to translate until altered.

TOP 10 micro-strategies in translation 

The proposed micro-strategies are a “ten-point list” of tactics based on Peter Newmark’s recognized strategies (Approaches to Translation, 1988, Hertfordshire, UK, Prentice Hall, pp. 82-91). These include linguistic units in the source text that can be translated directly, one-to-one counterparts or near equivalents, and solutions for dealing with units that are difficult or impossible to translate until altered.  

These strategies are listed, described, and developed below. .  

Ten micro-strategies in translation tasks

(1) Putting the original word into the translation (direct borrowing) 

English words are occasionally transmitted intact into translation for linguistic or cultural reasons. This method is frequently employed when words are borrowed or do not have equivalent meanings.  

For example: i) a culturally specific English word/phrase (e. g. golf, cricket, club, cottage) has no equivalent in the target language; ii) an English word or phrase that, according to the translator’s assumption, can be understood by the target audience (e. g. , “TV”), possibly an assimilated loanword.  

Include the original word in the translation

(2) Adaptation 

The literal translation of a word or phrase that captures the original (metaphorical) image in the source language and has become a well-known, often used term in the target language.  

For example : the phrase “flea market” (chợ trời), (there are many languages that use a literal translation, such as French marché aux puces (chợ bọ chét)).  

(3) Use direct equivalents 

One-to-one translation is a popular technique in technical, scientific, and other specialist literature, in which the meaning of a word or term acquired by readers in the source and destination languages must be identical to avoid ambiguity.  

However, in the original language, there may be two words that correspond to the same notion, with just a change in terms (for example, influenza/flu (cúm) or hypertension/high blood pressure (tăng huyết áp).  

(4) Cultural equivalence 

The word “laywer” is an example of a cultural unit in the source language being replaced by another unit in the target language. In German, the term for a lawyer is “Rechtsanwalt” or “Anwalt,” while Romance languages use phrases like “avocat” in French.  

In English, “laywer” and “avocat” are broad phrases, but there are also specialist terminology for specific legal titles, such as Jurist/juriste/giurista (lawyer). The situation becomes more convoluted when, in the Scottish legal system, the term advocate (or counsel) is used to refer to a member of the legal body who represents a client in legal proceedings. In Scotland, the term “barrister” (litigation lawyer) has different meanings than in England and Wales. Additionally, the term “counsel” is used differently in both systems.  

In 2006, the designation “solicitor-advocate” was adopted in England and Wales, allowing legal firms to represent clients in the Crown Court without the need for a barrister. According to Newmark (1988:83), the transfer of terms from one language to another can be imprecise. For instance, the Italian/English language pair “avvocato/solicitor” or “avvocato/barrister” is used by convention rather than being equivalent.  

(5) Use synonyms 

Newmark believes synonyms to be “close equivalents in meaning in the target language” (1988:84). For example, the English phrase “homesick” has a similar form in German, but French, Spanish, and Italian use the word “nostalgia” (which has a slightly different connotation in English).  

(6) Meaning translation 

To translate a word or phrase from one language to another, use the standard neutral form. For example, “custard” in English is translated as “crema pastelera” (custard cream) or “natillas” (custard) in Spanish, “Vanillesauce” (Vanilla sauce) or “Eierkrem” (egg cream) in German, and “crema inglese” (English cream) in Italian.  

When direct transmission of cultural aspects is not possible, the translator must express the information contained in the source language unit in the target language in the most effective and concise manner possible. The translation method can be used to convey metaphors when the literal translation of the component elements feels too “Western”.  

(7) Development or simulation 

These methods are frequently utilized when shorter translation options are ineffective, or when more information and context are required to assist readers grasp the problem. The term “Ealing Studios” refers to more than just the film studios in London; it also encompasses the surrounding culture. These (now-defunct) film studios formed in the 1950s, producing comedy and war films. When stating “Ealing comedy,” include a quick explanation in parentheses or a specific style of film to ensure the target audience understands the context. Footnotes or translator’s comments can be used if the footnotes are too long, however these additions will make the target text more “bulky”.  

When captions or brief explanations fail to capture cultural nuances, translators may need to use a mimetic approach. For instance, “rice pudding” refers to a traditional sweet served after dinner in schools, instilling knowledge in generations. causes nausea in students (yet is a favorite dish among many other students).  

The decision on which approach to use is mostly determined by the translator’s assessment of the level of explicitness required in the target culture and setting.  

(8) Simplified Translation 

Some writings are written in an unduly convoluted style, making the standard translation of the target text opaque. Sometimes the flowery, polished character of the source language is a stylistic feature that must be properly expressed in the translation.  

In other circumstances, the wordy style of the original text stems from repetition, or poor writing and expression skills, and may therefore need to be “pruned” if it is to be delivered. The message should be conveyed clearly and precisely in the target text. When simplification is used in translation, linguistic units in the source text can be eliminated.  

This is not always a strategy, and it is only permissible in circumstances of superfluous duplication or overlap (for example, two adjectives with the same meaning when one would enough), or when the word or phrase serves no purpose in a sentence. When deciding to simplify, consider the potential implications (such as unfinished sentences and loss of meaning).  

(9) Change grammar/syntax 

The degree of change regarded appropriate (or necessary) during translation is determined by the structural conventions of the source and target languages. Romance languages typically utilize nouns, adjectives, and major sentences, but English takes an interpretative approach. Language is more pragmatic and instinctive, emphasizing verb forms and subordinate clauses. Essentially, this is a generalization strategy; nevertheless, the translator of the English-Romance language pair (both directions) will focus too much on the contrasts in discourse characteristics.  

Because English has few such “grammatical” structures, word order is vital in establishing cohesion and coherence, but in the highly varied Romance languages, cohesion and coherence are more dependent on grammar and syntax than on word order. In this language group, a sentence can start with a subject, direct object, or indirect object, although “playing” with English word order can soon lose coherence and direction.  

Texts that offer information, instructions, or advice are typically written in simpler formats than texts that present arguments or expositions, such as academic texts. As a result, specialized art history texts in English can be written in a language just as formal (and difficult) as Romance works.  

(10) Compensation 

Compensation strategies are employed in a number of ways to preserve as much of the source text’s meaning as feasible. Cambridge University’s “Translation Toolkit,” which is supplied to students on modern linguistics courses, states that: 

“The issue in translation is acknowledging that the translator’s task is to minimize loss of meaning by making conscious decisions about which aspects to preserve and which to sacrifice in the source text. Compensation is making choices and judgments to reduce unsatisfactory situations and offer better alternatives. ” 

The well-known (and frequently misused) expression “lost in translation” refers to the fact that translation is an automatic process that results in loss of information and accuracy, and that transmission messages can be misleading, resulting in obscure and even hilarious circumstances. It is critical to acknowledge that losses are unavoidable in all translation processes, and to take steps to reduce and compensate for them.  

According to Cragie and colleagues (2015:36), compensation can be classified into three types: modal compensation, which involves making the implicit explicit (or vice versa). The textual meaning substitutes the associative meaning (or vice versa), whereas the concrete is replaced by the abstract. These behaviors frequently require the employment of various components of speech and grammatical structures, which may replace a single word or develop into lengthier units.  

Compensation is essentially a “loss limitation measure”. The existence of this method implies acknowledging the necessity for compromise in order to transmit clearly, properly, and appropriately those portions of the message that cannot be translated from the source text to the target text. The authors aim to underline that these must be rational decisions on a case-by-case basis, since compensatory techniques lack a precise scientific basis.  

In fact, the success of the compensation plan is dependent on the translator’s ability.  

  1. determine (possible) translation losses stemming from features of the source text such as: untranslatable units, uncertain meaning, low source text quality, irregular sentence structure, emergent terms, dialects, slang, metaphors, cultural inequivalence, , and
  2. to identify solutions to close the “gap” that translation losses cause, both in the specific context and within the macro-strategy that was developed and implemented from the start. 
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Translation Instructions and Efficient Ways to Build Them

7 steps of the basic translation process 

Each LSP has its own translation method, which can be tailored to the needs of the customer. However, in general, LSPs must assure adherence to a defined procedure. In this post, AM Vietnam will outline seven fundamental stages that all professional translation efforts must follow.

blank

Translation Quality Assurance with Xbench in 09 Steps

Quality assurance with Xbench is an essential stage in ensuring translation quality in professional translation today. Join AM Vietnam to learn how to utilize Xbench, one of the most successful translation QA tools available today.

Dịch thuật tiếng Việt: Dễ hay khó?

TOP 10 micro-strategies in translation 

The proposed micro-strategies are a “ten-point list” of tactics based on Peter Newmark’s recognized strategies (Approaches to Translation, 1988, Hertfordshire, UK, Prentice Hall, pp. 82-91). These include linguistic units in the source text that can be translated directly, one-to-one counterparts or near equivalents, and solutions for dealing with units that are difficult or impossible to translate until altered.